“Development of Western Science is based on two great achievements: the invention of the formal logical system…by the Greek philosophers, and the discovery [during the Renaissance] of the possibility to find out causal relationships by systematic experiment.”

Albert Einstein (1953)
A casual graph, representation of nodes and arrows. 
On the top left link is the root cause. 
On the bottom right is the final effect. 
Between them, 7 nodes are connected to each other by arrows. 
Some of these arrows are irrelevant link for the final effect.
Others are strongest casual link for the final effect.
The last ones are strongest inhibitor for final effect.
A Casual Graph, theory behind Krino

The Periodic Table of Arguments

The Periodic Table of Arguments (PTA) is a comprehensive overview of the techniques people use to persuade others of their point of view (Wagemans 2016, 2017, 2019b). The table is inspired by the classical disciplines dialectic (the art of philosophical debate) and rhetoric (the art of public speaking). It modernizes their traditional descriptions of argument schemes, fallacies, and other means of persuasion by unifying them in an overarching argument classification framework. Read more…

A representation of the Alpha Quadrant of the Periodic Table of Argument (PTA) .
It is composed by 10 different arguments, ordered by colour according to their nature.
The Alpha Quadrant of the PTA, part of the theory behind Krino

Adpositional Argumentation

Federico Gobbo and Marco Benini, the founders of Constructive Adpositional Grammars (CAG), have teamed up with Jean Wagemans in order to develop a high precision tool for representing the linguistic and pragmatic features of arguments. The combination of their linguistic representation framework with the argument classification framework of the Periodic Table of Arguments (PTA) has yielded a method for building so-called ‘argumentative adpositional trees’ (‘arg-adtrees’). These enable the analyst of argumentative discourse not only to represent statements on the morphosyntactic level, but also to include information regarding the argumentative function of their constituents.

Annotated corpus of argument schemes

Jacky Visser, John Lawrence, and Chris Reed of ARG-tech, the Centre for Argument Technology of the University of Dundee, are collaborating with Jean Wagemans for the purpose of developing an annotated corpus of argument schemes by combining Inference Anchoring Theory (IAT) with the Periodic Table of Arguments (PTA).


José Plug and Jean Wagemans are working on developing procedures for what they call ‘rhetoric-checking’, a practice that extends that of fact-checking with an assessment of the quality of argumentative aspects of discourse. Together with Martijn Demollin and Barend Last, they plan on launching a website for rhetoric-checking with student-generated content.

The representation of the sentence "He left a long trace on the road" in an ArgAd Tree.
An ArgAd Tree

The theory of Causality

Ordinary and scientific language is replete with causal claims, even when sentences do not use explicitly the words ‘cause’, ‘effect’, and their respective verbs. Even though the very concept of causation has undergone hard attacks, in the beginning of the 20th Century – notably by Russell in philosophy, Mach in physics, and Pearson in statistics – it is just a matter of fact that causal reasoning and causal discovery have not ceased to exist. With ups and downs, philosophy has revived debates on the notion of causation too. In particular, in the past decades, the philosophy of causality developed a rich battery of concepts, notions, and accounts of causation. Read more…

Representation of the Argument Type Identification Procedure.
Are the subjects of the reformulated statements the same?
If yes, the argument is from the Alpha Quadrant
If no : Are the predicates of the reformulated statements the same?
If yes, the argument is from the Beta Quadrant.
If no : Does the conclusion function as the subject of the premise?
If yes, the argument is from the Delta Quadrant.
If no, The argument is from the Gamma Quadrant.
Argument Type Identification Procedure